Mt. Epomeo


through meditation in these group sessions one may receive strong amounts of VRIL energy




(Partially based on "Valutazione del Rischio vulcanico nell'isola d'Ischia"; Laurea Thesis of Massimo Mattera, 1995, Università degli Studi di Napoli, Italy)

1 - Introduction

Ischia island is located 33 km SW of Napoli (Naples), Italy. It covers 46.3 km2 and is the largest island in the gulf of Napoli.

The highest peak of the island is Monte Epomeosurrounded by several volcanic vents. Mount Epomeo, covers a surface of 16 km2 or about the 34.5% of the entire surface of the island. It is almost entirely made up of volcanic rocks locally called Tufo Verde di Monte Epomeo (Green Tuff of Mount Epomeo). The top part is covered by sedimentary and volcanic deposits of younger age (Tufite of Monte Epomeo and Colle Jetto formation). The central- eastern part of the island is occupied by a triangular-shaped depression called the Ischia Graben comprised among the villages of Casamicciola, Barano and Ischia Ponte. The southern border of the graben is limited by a fault system extending from Carta Romana to Maronti and to the west by Mount Epomeo. The depression is divided into two halves by a fault along the valley of Rio Corbore.

The volcanic activity of the island of Ischia is related to the same causes that produced the volcanic activity along the western margin of peninsular Italy. About 10 millions year ago the areas now represented by the italian peninsula and the islands of Corsica, Sardegna (Sardinia) and Sicilia (Sicily), were bound toghether. A slow anticlockwise rotation of the italian peninsula separated it from Corsica and Sardegna and caused the opening of the Thyrrenian sea. The consequent stretching and thinning of the crust caused deep faults which favoured the formation and eruption of magmas.

The first modern geological studies of the Island of Ischia were made by the Swiss volcanologist Alfred Rittmann, who compiled one of its first geological map .

2 - Cronology of volcanic activity

The hills bordering Mt Epomeo are old volcanic vents formed during the last 150000 years. Absolute datings by means of radioactive methods and volcanological studies permitted to summaryze the volcanic activity into 5 different cycles. The first two occurred before the eruption of the Green Tuff which forms most of Mt Epomeo. The last three phases of activity occurred after the eruption of Mt Epomeo.

  • - Phase 1- older than150.000 years
  • - Phase 2 - between 150.000 and 75.000 years
  • - Phase 3 - between 55.000 and 33.000 years
  • - Phase 4 - between 28.500 and 18.000 years
  • - Phase 5 - after 10.000 years

The activity before the Green Tuff (Phases 1 and 2)

The products of these phases outcrop mostly in the southern part of the Island (between Punta della Signora and Carta Romana, Monte di Vezzi, peninsula of Sant'Angelo, Capo Negro, Punta Chiarito and Punta Imperatore), in the north western sector (Monte Vico), and eastern part (Castello d'Ischia). Also the lava flow outcropping at Rione Bocca on the western side of Epomeo is thought to belong to these phases. The products of the largest eruption of this period are found at the base of the sequence of Scarrupata di Barano. Most of these products have been eroded by the action of the sea and of subsequent explosive eruptions. The result of this activity was the building of a volcanic edifice probably larger than the present one. A caldera (a depressed circular structure) was formed after this phase with the collapse of the central sector of the island. Annular fractures border the caldera and represent the preferred pathways for the upcoming magmas.

Phase 2 is characterized by the formation of several scoria cones and domes (Punta Imperatore, Capo Negro, Punta Chiarito, Sant'Angelo, Punta della Signora, Capo Grosso, La Guardiola, Monte di Vezzi and Castello d'Ischia). The dome of Monte Vezzi emitted two viscous lava flows. Other lava flows form the peninsula of San Pancrazio, Punta della Cannuccia and Parata. Also Monte Vico belongs to this phase. After this activity there was a long period of quiscence until 55000 years.

Phase 3

The volcanic activity starts again at 55000 years with numerous explosive eruptions whose produts are called Pignatiello Formation, Green Tuff of Monte Epomeo and Citara formation.The eruptive vents are no more identified. The possible vent of the Green Tuff eruption is possibly located in the southern part of the island, between Sant'Angelo and Maronti. Part of the products of this eruption filled the pre-existing caldera and covered the eastern part of the island. The green colour, typical of marine alteration of volcanic products, suggest that the the caldera was already submerged and lately subsided more as a result of the eruption. The products of this eruption outside the caldera (Monte Vico, Punta Imperatore and Scarrupata di Barano) were deposited in a typical sub-aerial environment. The Green Tuff of Monte Epomeo remained below sea level until 28000 years ago. At this time most of the Epomeo was raised by the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. The eruption of the sequence called Citara Tuffs occurs between 44000 and 33000 years. These products were erupted during at least three separate eruptions with a typical phreato-magmatic activity (explosive interaction between magma and sea water). The Citara Tuffs overlie the Green Tuff at Monte Vico, and between Capo Negro and Punta Chiarito and at Punta Imperatore.

Phase 4

The first products of this phase are the lava domes of Grotta del Mavone. The subsequent activity is characterized by thick lava flows and scorias emitted by the vents of Pilaro. Then there were eruptions of scoria and pumices found at Scarrupo di Panza. After this activity there is a phase of quiescence

Phase 5

Numerous eruptions occured around 10.000 years ago and the volcanic activity continued until the eruption of Arso in 1302 AD. Most of the eruptive centers are located along the eastern border of Epomeo in the area called the Ischia Graben. It is possible that these eruptions were fed by the magma rising along the fractures that borders the Epomeo. During this phase were formed Monte Rotaro, Montagnone, Monte Moschiata, Vateliero, Molara and Cava Nocelle.



3 - Mount Epomeo

Mount Epomeo is interpreted as an entire raised block (volcanic horst). The uplift is dated between 33000 and 28000 years ago, and was possibly due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. The pressure increase caused the formation of fractures representing the sliding planes along which the block was raised. The uplifting block was tilted to the south as a result of a differential movement, and, as a consequence, the northern side was raised more than the southern side.On the northern side there are several fractures feeding the thermal springs of Casamicciola and La Rita and a lineament of fumaroles along a fracture cutting Monte Cito. The southern part of Epomeo was raised less and was more affected by a sequence of landslide and mudflows occurring along the inclined surface of the block.



4 - Fumaroles and thermal springs

The volcanic nature of the island is well evidenced by the presence of fumaroles and thermal springs, that have been since long exploited as a terapeutical and touristic attraction. The fractures bordering Mount Epomeo are the preferred pathway for the uprisings volcanic gases that provide the heat to raise the temperature of the water table. Fumaroles with temperature near 100 °C are found on the flank of Monte Nuovo and Monte Cito and along the Maronti coast. In other areas (San Michele, Monte Rotaro, Fundera e Scarrupo di Panza), the temperature of the fumaroles does not exceed 46 °C.

The hot springs have temperatures between 20° and 80°C. They are located at Forio in località Monterone (Castaldi and Castiglioni springs), at Casamicciola ( La Rita and Bagni springs), at Barano in località Maronti (springs of Cava Scura, Olmitello and Cava Fredda), and the springs of Cartaromana, Punta Chiarito, Bagnitiello, San Montano and Porto d'Ischia. The areas where the thermal springs are localized ,can be considered as possible sites for future euptions. A fumarolic field called Solonaria, exploited for the extraction of sulphur, was located in the area where opened the vent of the Arso eruption of 1302. Deep wells drilled in all the island provide the evidence of temperature at depth as high as 200 °C and the occurrence of different water tables heated by geothermal fluids probably coming from a depth of about 3000 m.



5 - Eruptions and earthquakes of pre-historical and historical times

The natural history of Ischia island has been characterized, since long time, by natural catastrophes caused by eruptions and earthquakes. A pre-historical site of iron-age is buried under the ashes of an eruption occurred in the area between Ischia Porto and Casamicciola. The first greek colony of southern Italy (called Pithecusa) was settled in Ischia in the VIII century BC. The greek colonists arrived around 770 BC from Eubea and settled on the Promontory of Mount Vico at the north-western side of the island. Earthquakes and eruptions compelled the colonists to leave the island and settle on the coast of Campania where they founded the colony of Cuma which caused the economic decline of the island. Around 600 BC, the eruption of Monte Rotaro caused the final decline of the colony in Ischia. In 476 BC the island is occupied by the Syracusans, which were driven off the island by a new eruption occurred between 474 and 470 BC. This eruption possibly occured where now is sited the Porto d'Ischia. After some time the island was occupied again by colonists coming from Naples (possibly the same that left the island before).

Volcanic activity occurred also during roman time. There are evidences of an eruption occurred in 91 BC and another one during the emperorship of Augustus who gave back the island to the neapolitans and got in change Capri! There are other evidences of eruptions under the emperors Titus, Antoninus and Diocletian.

The last eruption occurred in 1302 when a vent opened in the area of Flaiano and emitted a lava flow which lasted for two months. The lava flow is between 500 and 100 m wide and is presently called Arso (once it was called "Le Cremate"). It reached the beach between Porto d'Ischia and Ischia Ponte and destroyed the old village of Geronda. The eruption caused much panic and compelled the escape of many people to the nearby islands and continental coast. Since then, the only volcanic activity are the fumarolic emissions all over the island.

Numerous detructive earthquakes occurred on the Island. In the last period we recall those of 1881 and 1883. The quake of 1881 was felt for 7 seconds and had an highr intensity in the territory of Casamicciola. There were 129 casualties (124 in Casamicciola and 5 in Lacco Ameno). The wounded were 100 in Casamicciola. 290 buildings were destroyed in Casamicciola and 159 were damaged. In Lacco Ameno there was the destruction of 194 buildings (among these the church of S.Giuseppe al Fango). Also most of the buildings of Forio were damaged.

The earthquake of 28 July 1883 was felt for 16 seconds and was localyzed in Casamicciola where there were 1784 casualties over 4300 inhabitants. 448 people were wounded. Of the 672 buildings of the village, 572 collapsed and 134 were damaged. In Lacco Ameno there were 146 dead and 93 wounded over 1800 inhabitants. 269 buildings collapsed and 102 were damaged out of 389. The church of Santa maria del Rosario was destroyed. In Forio there were 345 casualties and 190 wounded , out of 6800 inhabitants.1344 buildings were destroyed and 977 damaged out of a total 2713. The church of S. Sebastiano also was destroyed. At Serrara-Fontana there were 28 dead and 21 wounded . At Barano there were 10 dead and 10 wounded. At Ischia the quake was barely felt and a few buildings were damaged. The quake caused a total of 2313 casualties.



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B i b l i o g r a p h y

  • Chiesa S., Poli S., Vezzoli L., 1986. Studio dell'ultima eruzione storica dell'isola d'Ischia: la colata dell'Arso - 1302. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, Centro Alpi Centrali, CNR, Milano.
  • Cortini M., Scandone R., 1987. Un' introduzione alla Vulcanologia, Liguori Editore, Napoli, pp. 212.
  • Giacomelli L., Scandone R., 1992. Campi Flegrei Campania Felix, Liguori Editore, Napoli, pp.135.
  • Luongo G., Cubellis E., Obrizzo F., 1987. Ischia, Liguori Editore, Napoli, pp. 164.
  • Maino A., Tribalto G., 1971. Rilevamento gravimetrico di dettaglio dell'isola d'Ischia (Napoli). Boll. Serv. Geol. Ital., 92, 109.
  • Nunziata C., Rapolla A., 1987. A gravity and magnetic study of the volcanic island of Ischia, Naples (Italy). J.Volcanol. and Geotherm Res., 31.
  • Orsi G., Gallo G., Zanchi A., 1991. Simple-shearing block resurgence in caldera depressions. A model from Pantelleria and Ischia. J. Vulcanol. and Geotherm. Res., 47: 1-11.
  • Rittmann A, 1930. Geologie der Insel Ischia. Zeitschrift fur Vulkanologie, Vol. VI.
  • Rittmann A., Gottini V., 1981. L' isola d'Ischia, Geologia. Boll. Serv. Geol. Ital., pp. 101. Rossi P.L., 1984. Contributi al rilevamento geologico in aree vulcaniche, Pitagora Editore, Bologna, pp. 65.
  • Vezzoli L., (editor) 1988. Island of Ischia. CNR Quad. Ric. Sci. 114 (10) : pp. 133.

Modified 28-October 97





Sunday evening directions August 22, 2010 Session 9PM to 11PM EST

VHEC Journey  into Mt.Taygetos in Greece -  - Ancient Timeline - Subsurface - Subterranean

We are looking at several pyramids here believed to be the remnants of one of the earliest crowned pyramids. Who are the descendants that left them there. Was there a mighty culture which once existed here?

This is a zone that leads into a myriad of tunnels which lead deep into the earth. Many of these tunnels are broken off in time, others go deeper. By use of the astral body one may gauge what tunnels are still intact if any. And what energy sources these tunnels will lead to: ancient artifacts. Our desire is to check into these subterranean places and view what the Atlanteans (generally) left there for humanity's use - at their risk.

 However subjective this may be for the first journey into the underground realms, the subterranean areas of Greece are packed full of tunnels and caverns. Worlds of magic that will keep the astral traveler intrigued over many journeys.



The VRIL astral traveler who is interested in following the timeline back into the history of the target area will find very intriguing mysteries revealed. 


Directions as given by VHEC Shaman Guide For Steps of Astral Journey:

In astral travel it is often a question as to ‘how deep (?) can I go, or, how far can I travel? To travel with a full sense of performance one has to prepare and plan out their journey in detail prior to entering the high energy arc of the VRIL. Through first planning in the mind and writing down one’s planned journey before, the spirit practitioner ‘knows’ the path to the objective target, and guidance from one’s spirit helpers is made available.


The cautionary fear, the will to see first before any travel, is a necessary built-in instinct of humans as well as that shared by their animal neighbors. We want to master seeing where we are going in our highest capacity. That is why remote-viewing first serves the astral projector entering a desired target.

If you are interested in the historical - time travel process. Find a time that best interests you and meditate on this prior to the session Sunday evening. It is important to know the Akashic Records will open to the one who has desire. By this the 'desire in your heart' to find out an historical account of a past event - is the key.

Spend time writing down your questions before the journey. There is nothing more true than the idiom 'ask and the answers will be given'. For many this is a practice for future analyzing how one can gather information quickly. By writing down your questions prior to travel, the mind will pick up on this and will penetrate the target for this information, whether one is consciously aware of this happening or not. The mind is always busy and equipped to gather information on many levels. The mind's eye will often go before your own observation and view things that are out of reach of the normal setting of your mind. Allow this to work for you. Soon you will be able to penetrate walls into other areas of buildings without entering them, in a simple gaze. You will also be able to access the timeline of events that occur in a moment. Several hundred years may be seen in a passing glance.

Our overall goal is finding a tunnel system(s) and entrance(s) beneath present day surface locations (targets).  By contacting beings in this area, those who have passed over but have left strong energy signals we may acquire information concerning tunnel entrances that may still be available to humans today.

 Create your circle of protection, and allow the positive energy of the VRIL to encompass your astral body as you power up  into the light energy grid of Mother Earth.

1.  9:00 - 9:15pm This time will allow the viewer to see symbols of archetypes that are part of the natural geomancy of the area. Gaze onto the targets of the satellite maps and raise your inner VRIL fire. Keen on light energies that are revealed as the third eye opens and gather a sense of the past. Call on the Akashic Records and open to the information pouring into your mind's HD.  Access the timeline going back to a date (or series of dates) that interests you. The more specific you are, the more specific the material is that you will receive.

2.   9:30pm - Once you are satisfied with the information you have received, enter into the area through your third eye more fully.  Slip into the time zone you have the high interest in and contemplate on your surroundings. Once you are satisfied with the surface experience, begin looking for entrances that lead down to the next level underground. Study the holy places of the past people. There are points of geomancy given in their location.

3.   10pm - Develop a method where you can see underground - by illumination. Send a signal out of your third eye that will light up your surroundings. This is a good practice to get into when going into the deeper caverns prior to entering the Crystalline Grid, or naturally illuminated places. Enter a more powerful vibration so that you will flow through walls quickly and begin entry into the deeper cavern areas below the city. Our overall goal is to find a colony or colonies that presently exist or existed in the past (having left markings of their existence).

4.   10:30 pm - Go as deep as you want. The journey into the Earth may be at times overwhelming in its beauty. The inner VRIL reveals the nature of Earth. Practice deep breathing, expanding your diaphragm. Think of the expanding diaphragm as a bellows which is adding oxygen to your inner fire.

11pm – close of VHEC Journey, meditate as long as you have desire to. Write in your journal notes if you wish immediately following the journey or wait until morning. Your memory of an event is the most authentic within a 12 hour period following a journey. The mental notes you have made along the way will pop up into your mind and will allow you to detail your story. Add drawings as you feel describe further the locations you have visited

peace and High VRIL,

Greg Gavin

VRIL Hollow Earth Circle, Moderator Publishing c2010



general information


Mount Taygetus, Taugetus, or Taigetus (Greek: Ταΰγετος, Taugetos) is a mountain range in the Peloponnesepeninsula in Southern Greece. It is the tallest mountain in the Peloponnese, reaching 2,407 m (7,896 feet) at the Profitis Elias summit. The Taygetus range is about 100 km long, extending from the center of the Peloponese to Cape Matapan, its southernmost extremity. The summit of Taygetus is an ultra prominent peak (2,344 m or 7,690 feet), as the Isthmus of Corinth which separates the Peloponnese from mainland Greece rises only to ~60 m in altitude.

The mountain is named after the nymphTaygete. Taygetus overlooks the cities of Sparta and Kalamata, whose skyline it dominates. In Byzantine times and up until the 19th century, the mountain was also known as Pentedaktylos (Greek for five-fingered, a common name during that period). The mountain range lies within the prefectures ofArcadia, Laconia and Messenia.

The slopes of Taygetus are heavily forested, primarily with Greek fir (Abies cephallonica) and black pine (pinus nigra). Devastating fires in 2005 and 2007 consumed much of the forests on the central west slopes, and only about half remain. Numerous creeks wash down from the mountains and the Evrotasriver has its headwaters in the northern part of the range. The mountain is a popular hiking destination and is part of the European walking route E4. The view from the top includes most of the Evrotas valley and the Parnon range to the east, while the view towards the west includes Kalamata and the eastern half of Messenia. Most of the southwestern part of Arcadia can also be seen from the summit.

Taygetus is crossed by Greek National Road 82, which links Kalamata to Sparti and separates Northern Taygetus from the Central Range. The Rindomo Gorge separates the Central Range from Southern Taygetos. The section of Taygetus that forms the backbone of the Mani Peninsula is also known as Saggias, and is often not considered part of Taygetus. The central part of the mountain range is commonly called "Skoteini Plevra" which means "the dark side" because the villages located there do not receive as much sunshine in the early morning and the late afternoon hours.

Part of Skoteini Plevra

[edit]Human Geography

The slopes of Taygetus have been inhabited since at leastMycenean times. The site of Arkina, near the village of Arna, contains three beehive tombs and is still unexplored. Taygetus was important as one of Sparta's natural defenses. The Spartans threw criminals and "unfit" (weak, sickly, deformed, or mentally retarded)infants into a chasm of Taygetus known as Ceadas (Κεάδας) orCaeadas (Greek: Καιάδας). In antiquity, male Spartan newborns were abandoned there if deemed unfit after examination for vitality. Recent evidence, found by the University of Athens, discovered remains of adult individuals which appeared to confirm that Ceadas was also, or mainly, a place of punishment for criminals, traitors and captives.[1] During the era of barbarian invasions, Taygetus served as a shelter for the native population. Many of the villages in its slopes date from this period. In Medieval times, the citadel and monastery of Mystras was built on the steep slopes, and became a center of Byzantine civilizations and served as capital of the Byzantine Empire. Mystras remains occupied by a tiny religious community. The buildings are remarkably well-preserved and a major tourist attraction in the region. 2010